Descriptions of the area, earthquake and tsunami behaviour and what to do in a tsunami.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Pacific Ring of Fire
The Pacific Ring of Fire is an area of frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions encircling the basin of the Pacific Ocean. In a 40,000 km horseshoe shape, it is associated with a nearly continuous series of oceanic trenches, volcanic arcs, and volcanic belts and/or plate movements. The Ring of Fire has 452 volcanoes and is home to over 75% of the world's active and dormant volcanoes. It is sometimes called the circum-Pacific belt or the circum-Pacific seismic belt.
Ninety percent of the world's earthquakes and 81% of the world's largest earthquakes occur along the Ring of Fire. The next most seismic region (5–6% of earthquakes and 17% of the world's largest earthquakes) is the Alpide belt which extends from Java to Sumatra through the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and out into the Atlantic. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is the third most prominent earthquake belt.
The Ring of Fire is a direct result and consequence of plate tectonics and the movement and collisions of crustal plates. The eastern section of the ring is the result of the Nazca Plate and the Cocos Plate being subducted beneath the westward moving South American Plate. A portion of the Pacific Plate along with the small Juan de Fuca Plate are being subducted beneath the North American Plate. Along the northern portion the northwestward moving Pacific plate is being subducted beneath the Aleutian Islands arc. Further west the Pacific plate is being subducted along the Kamchatka Peninsula arcs on south past Japan. The southern portion is more complex with a number of smaller tectonic plates in collision with the Pacific plate from the Mariana Islands, the Philippines, Bougainville, Tonga, and New Zealand. Indonesia lies between the Ring of Fire along the northeastern islands adjacent to and including New Guinea and the Alpide belt along the south and west from Sumatra, Java, Bali, Flores, and Timor. The famous and very active San Andreas Fault zone of California is a transform fault which offsets a portion of the East Pacific Rise under southwestern United States and Mexico. The motion of the fault generates numerous small earthquakes, at multiple times a day, most of which are too small to be felt. The active Queen Charlotte Fault is a transform fault on the west coast of the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada. It has generated three large earthquakes during the 20th century: a magnitude 7 event in 1929, a magnitude 8.1 occurred in 1949 (Canada's largest recorded earthquake) and a magnitude 7.4 in 1970.
The December 2004 earthquake just off the coast of Sumatra was actually a part of the Alpide belt. 
How are Tsunamis formed?
Tsunamis can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. Tectonic earthquakes are a particular kind of earthquake that are associated with the earth's crustal deformation; when these earthquakes occur beneath the sea, the water above the deformed area is displaced from its equilibrium position. Waves are formed as the displaced water mass, which acts under the influence of gravity, attempts to regain its equilibrium. When large areas of the sea floor elevate or subside, a tsunami can be created.
Large vertical movements of the earth's crust can occur at plate boundaries. Plates interact along these boundaries called faults. Around the margins of the Pacific Ocean, for example, denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates in a process known as subduction. Subduction earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunamis.
A tsunami can be generated by any disturbance that displaces a large water mass from its equilibrium position. In the case of earthquake-generated tsunamis, the water column is disturbed by the uplift or subsidence of the sea floor. Submarine landslides, which often accompany large earthquakes, as well as collapses of volcanic edifices, can also disturb the overlying water column as sediment and rock slump downslope and are redistributed across the sea floor. Similarly, a violent submarine volcanic eruption can create an impulsive force that uplifts the water column and generates a tsunami. Conversely, supermarine landslides and cosmic-body impacts disturb the water from above, as momentum from falling debris is transferred to the water into which the debris falls. Generally speaking, tsunamis generated from these mechanisms, unlike the Pacific-wide tsunamis caused by some earthquakes, dissipate quickly and rarely affect coastlines distant from the source area.
United States Search and Rescue Task Force
Tsunami, also known as seismic sea waves, are caused by sudden changes in the seafloor, generally earthquakes and more rarely large landslides. Tsunami are sometimes mistakenly called "tidal waves", but they are not caused by tidal action. Not all earthquakes are tsunami-genic (generate tsunami); to generate a tsunami, the earthquake must occur under or near the ocean, be large, and create vertical movements of the seafloor. It is thought that tsunami-genic earthquakes release their energy over a couple of minutes, much more slowly than the sudden lurching earthquakes, which release their energy in seconds. In fact, some tsunami-genic earthquakes can not be felt by people, so gradual is their energy release. Much of the earthquake's energy, which can be equivalent to many atomic bombs, is transferred to the water column above it, producing a tsunami. All oceanic regions of the world can experience tsunami, but the Pacific Ocean is especially vulnerable because of the many large earthquakes associated with the "Ring of Fire" along its margins.
In the deep ocean, tsunami have very small amplitudes (wave heights are only a few inches), wavelengths of up to 1000 kilometers, and speeds of more than 800 kilometers per hour (500 miles per hour), the speed of a jetliner. The slope of a tsunami surface at sea is only about a centimeter per kilometer (an inch per mile). A tsunami may take 4-6 hours to reach Hawaii from the Aleutian Islands, 7-8 hours from Japan, and 14-15 hours from Chile, but its energy will only dissipate slightly as it crosses the entire ocean. In fact, once the tsunami reaches the other side of the ocean thousands of kilometers from its source, it can bounce off the land and return in the direction it came, although its energy will decrease from the reflection. It is easy to see that at these scales the Pacific Ocean becomes like a pond to the tsunami.
A tsunami carries an enormous amount of energy that is spread over a large volume of water in the deep sea. However, when a tsunami reaches shallow water, such as a coastline, the energy is concentrated into a smaller volume and the wave's power overwhelms whatever is in its path. In shallow water, its speed decreases and its amplitude increases to dangerous heights, sometimes 50 feet or higher, and it spreads inland many hundreds of feet (in some cases a mile or more). A tsunami is not a single wave, but a set that may last for several hours, and the first wave is not always the largest.
How do they form?
Tsunamis are formed as a result of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, or landslides that occur under the sea. When these events occur under the water, huge amounts of energy are released as a result of quick upward bottom movement. For example, if a volcanic eruption occurs, the ocean floor may very quickly move upward several hundred feet. When this happens, huge volumes of ocean water are pushed upward and a wave is formed. A large earthquake can lift thousands of square kilometers of sea floor which will cause the formation of huge waves. The Pacific Ocean is especially prone to tsunamis as a result of the large amount of undersea geological activity.
How big do they get?
In the open ocean tsunamis may appear very small with a height of less than 1 meter (3 feet). Tsunamis will sometimes go undetected until they approach shallow waters along a coast. These waves have a very large wavelength (up to several hundred miles) that is a function of the depth of the water where they were formed. Although these waves have a small height, there is a tremendous amount of energy associated with them. As a result of this huge amount of energy, these waves can become gigantic as they approach shallow water. Their height, as they crash upon the shore, depends on the underwater surface features. They can be as high as 30 m (100 feet) or more. In 1737 , a huge wave estimated to be 64m (210 feet) in height hit Cape Lopatka, Kamchatka (NE Russia). The largest Tsunami ever recorded occurred in July of 1958 in Lituya Bay, Alaska. A huge rock and ice fall sent water surging up to a high water mark of 500m (1640 feet). It's no wonder that these waves can cause such massive destruction and loss of life.
How fast do they move?
In the deep open sea, tsunamis move at speeds approaching a jet aircraft (500 mph or more). As they approach the shore, they slow down. When a tsunami arrives at the shore, it usually does so as a rapidly rising tide moving at about 70 km/hour (45 mph).
How much destruction do they cause?
Beyond the tremendous destruction of life that tsunamis cause, they have also caused massive physical damage. They have entirely destroyed buildings and left towns looking like a nuclear war zone. They have lifted boats high out of the water and violently hurled them against the shore, smashing them to pieces. They have bent parking meters all the way down to the ground. In one incredible story, during the huge tsunami in Lituya Bay, Alaska (mentioned above), a boat with two people in it was carried from the bay, over tree tops and over the land out into the ocean. The people survived to tell the tale.
Can we detect them before they hit?
Yes. About 35 years ago, 24 countries around the Pacific set up the Pacific Tsunami Warning System. A group of seismic monitoring stations and a network of tide gauges are used for detection. The biggest problem with this system is that it is difficult to predict how large and destructive the resulting waves will be. Scientists are currently working on better predictive tools.
When you hear a tsunami warning, move at once to higher ground and stay there until local authorities say it is safe to return home.
Find out if your home is in a danger area.
Know the height of your street above sea level and the distance of your street from the coast. Evacuation orders may be based on these numbers.
Be familiar with the tsunami warning signs.
Because tsunamis can be caused by an underwater disturbance or an earthquake, people living along the coast should consider an earthquake or a sizable ground rumbling as a warning signal. A noticeable rapid rise or fall in coastal waters is also a sign that a tsunami is approaching.
Make sure all family members know how to respond to a tsunami.
Make evacuation plans.
Pick an inland location that is elevated. After an earthquake or other natural disaster, roads in and out of the vicinity may be blocked, so pick more than one evacuation route.
Teach family members how and when to turn off gas, electricity, and water.
Teach children how and when to call 9-1-1, police or fire department, and which radio station to listen for official information.
Have disaster supplies on hand.
Flashlight and extra batteries
Portable, battery-operated radio and extra batteries
First aid kit and manual
Emergency food and water
Nonelectric can opener
Cash and credit cards
Develop an emergency communication plan.
In case family members are separated from one another during a tsunami (a real possibility during the day when adults are at work and children are at school), have a plan for getting back together.
Ask an out-of-state relative or friend to serve as the "family contact." After a disaster, often it's easier to call long distance. Make sure everyone knows the name, address, and phone number of the contact person.
Listen to a radio or television to get the latest emergency information, and be ready to evacuate if asked to do so.
If you hear an official tsunami warning or detect signs of a tsunami, evacuate at once. Climb to higher ground. A tsunami warning is issued when authorities are certain that a tsunami threat exists.
Stay away from the beach.
Never go down to the beach to watch a tsunami come in. If you can see the wave you are too close to escape it.
Return home only after authorities advise it is safe to do so.
A tsunami is a series of waves. Do not assume that one wave means that the danger over. The next wave may be larger than the first one. Stay out of the area.
Stay tuned to a battery-operated radio for the latest emergency information.
Help injured or trapped persons.
Give first aid where appropriate. Do not move seriously injured persons unless they are in immediate danger of further injury. Call for help.
Remember to help your neighbors who may require special assistance--infants, elderly people, and people with disabilities.
Stay out of damaged buildings. Return home only when authorities say it is safe.
Enter your home with caution.
Use a flashlight when entering damaged buildings.
Open windows and doors to help dry the building.
Shovel mud while it is still moist to give walls and floors an opportunity to dry.
Check food supplies and test drinking water.
Fresh food that has come in contact with flood waters may be contaminated and should be thrown out.
INSPECTING UTILITIES IN A DAMAGED HOME
Check for gas leaks--If you smell gas or hear a blowing or hissing noise, open a window and quickly leave the building. Turn off the gas at the outside main valve if you can and call the gas company from a neighbor's home. If you turn off the gas for any reason, it must be turned back on by a professional.
Look for electrical system damage--If you see sparks or broken or frayed wires, or if you smell hot insulation, turn off the electricity at the main fuse box or circuit breaker. If you have to step in water to get to the fuse box or circuit breaker, don't do it! Wait for professionals.
Check for sewage and water lines damage--If you suspect sewage lines are damaged, avoid using toilets. If water pipes are damaged, contact the water company and avoid the water from the tap. You can obtain safe water by melting ice cubes.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. For other uses, see Earthquake (disambiguation).
An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of stored energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. Earthquakes are accordingly measured with a seismometer, commonly known as a seismograph. The magnitude of an earthquake is conventionally reported using the Richter scale or a related Moment scale (with magnitude 3 or lower earthquakes being hard to notice and magnitude 7 causing serious damage over large areas).
At the Earth's surface, earthquakes may manifest themselves by a shaking or displacement of the ground. Sometimes, they cause tsunamis, which may lead to loss of life and destruction of property. An earthquake is caused by tectonic plates getting stuck and putting a strain on the ground. The strain becomes so great that rocks give way by breaking and sliding along fault planes.
Earthquakes may occur naturally or as a result of human activities. Smaller earthquakes can also be caused by volcanic activity, landslides, mine blasts, and nuclear experiments. In its most generic sense, the word earthquake is used to describe any seismic event—whether a natural phenomenon or an event caused by humans—that generates seismic waves.
An earthquake's point of initial ground rupture is called its focus or hypocenter. The term epicenter means the point at ground level directly above this.
Naturally occurring earthquakes
Most naturally occurring earthquakes are related to the tectonic nature of the Earth. Such earthquakes are called tectonic earthquakes. The Earth's lithosphere is a patchwork of plates in slow but constant motion caused by the release to space of the heat in the Earth's mantle and core. The heat causes the rock in the Earth to become flow on geological timescales, so that the plates move slowly but surely. Plate boundaries lock as the plates move past each other, creating frictional stress. When the frictional stress exceeds a critical value, called local strength, a sudden failure occurs. The boundary of tectonic plates along which failure occurs is called the fault plane. When the failure at the fault plane results in a violent displacement of the Earth's crust, the elastic strain energy is released and seismic waves are radiated, thus causing an earthquake. This process of strain, stress, and failure is referred to as the Elastic-rebound theory. It is estimated that only 10 percent or less of an earthquake's total energy is radiated as seismic energy. Most of the earthquake's energy is used to power the earthquake fracture growth and is converted into heat, or is released to friction. Therefore, earthquakes lower the Earth's available potential energy and raise its temperature, though these changes are negligible.
The majority of tectonic earthquakes originate at depths not exceeding tens of kilometers. In subduction zones, where older and colder oceanic crust descends beneath another tectonic plate, Deep focus earthquakes may occur at much greater depths (up to seven hundred kilometers). These seismically active areas of subduction are known as Wadati-Benioff zones. These are earthquakes that occur at a depth at which the subducted lithosphere should no longer be brittle, due to the high temperature and pressure. A possible mechanism for the generation of deep focus earthquakes is faulting caused by olivine undergoing a phase transition into a spinel structure.
Earthquakes may also occur in volcanic regions and are caused there both by tectonic faults and by the movement of magma in volcanoes. Such earthquakes can be an early warning of volcanic eruptions.
A recently proposed theory suggests that some earthquakes may occur in a sort of earthquake storm, where one earthquake will trigger a series of earthquakes each triggered by the previous shifts on the fault lines, similar to aftershocks, but occurring years later, and with some of the later earthquakes as damaging as the early ones. Such a pattern was observed in the sequence of about a dozen earthquakes that struck the North Anatolian Fault in Turkey in the 20th century, the half dozen large earthquakes in New Madrid in 1811-1812, and has been inferred for older anomalous clusters of large earthquakes in the Middle East and in the Mojave Desert.
Size and frequency of occurrence
Small earthquakes occur nearly constantly around the world in places like California and Alaska in the U.S., as well as in Chile, Peru, Indonesia, Iran, the Azores in Portugal, New Zealand, Greece and Japan. Large earthquakes occur less frequently, the relationship being exponential; for example, roughly ten times as many earthquakes larger than magnitude 4 occur in a particular time period than earthquakes larger than magnitude 5. In the (low seismicity) United Kingdom, for example, it has been calculated that the average recurrences are:
an earthquake of 3.7 or larger every year
an earthquake of 4.7 or larger every 10 years
an earthquake of 5.6 or larger every 100 years.
The number of seismic stations has increased from about 350 in 1931 to many thousands today. As a result, many more earthquakes are reported than in the past because of the vast improvement in instrumentation (not because the number of earthquakes has increased). The USGS estimates that, since 1900, there have been an average of 18 major earthquakes (magnitude 7.0-7.9) and one great earthquake (magnitude 8.0 or greater) per year, and that this average has been relatively stable. In fact, in recent years, the number of major earthquakes per year has actually decreased, although this is likely a statistical fluctuation. More detailed statistics on the size and frequency of earthquakes is available from the USGS.
Most of the world's earthquakes (90%, and 81% of the largest) take place in the 40,000-km-long, horseshoe-shaped zone called the circum-Pacific seismic belt, also known as the Pacific Ring of Fire, which for the most part bounds the Pacific Plate. Massive earthquakes tend to occur along other plate boundaries, too, such as along the Himalayan Mountains.
NOAA requests that use of this data in published reports or presentations reference the source of the data as "NOAA’s National Data Buoy Center".
Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART™)
For DART realtime data, click here.
To ensure early detection of tsunamis and to acquire data critical to real-time forecasts, NOAA has placed Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART™) stations at sites in regions with a history of generating destructive tsunamis. NOAA completed the original 6-buoy operational array (map of original six stations) in 2001 and plans to expand to a full network of 39 stations by the end of 2008 (Planned DART™ Array).
Originally developed by NOAA, as part of the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP), the DART™ Project was an effort to maintain and improve the capability for the early detection and real-time reporting of tsunamis in the open ocean.
DART™ presently constitutes a critical element of the NOAA Tsunami Program. The Tsunami Program is part of a cooperative effort to save lives and protect property through hazard assessment, warning guidance, mitigation, research capabilities, and international coordination. NOAA’s National Weather Service (NWS) is responsible for the overall execution of the Tsunami Program. This includes operation of the U.S. Tsunami Warning Centers (TWC) as well as leadership of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. It also includes the acquisition, operations and maintenance of observation systems required in support of tsunami warning such as DART™, local seismic networks, coastal, and coastal flooding detectors. NWS also supports observations and data management through the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC).
DART™ systems consist of an anchored seafloor bottom pressure recorder (BPR) and a companion moored surface buoy for real-time communications (Gonzalez et al., 1998). An acoustic link transmits data from the BPR on the seafloor to the surface buoy.
The BPR collects temperature and pressure at 15-second intervals. The pressure values are corrected for temperature effects and the pressure converted to an estimated sea-surface height (height of the ocean surface above the seafloor) by using a constant 670 mm/psia. The system has two data reporting modes, standard and event. The system operates routinely in standard mode, in which four spot values (of the 15-s data) at 15-minute intervals of the estimated sea surface height are reported at scheduled transmission times. When the internal detection software (Mofjeld) identifies an event, the system ceases standard mode reporting and begins event mode transmissions. In event mode, 15-second values are transmitted during the initial few minutes, followed by 1-minute averages. Event mode messages also contain the time of the initial occurrence of the event. The system returns to standard transmission after 4 hours of 1-minute real-time transmissions if no further events are detected.
The first generation DART™ (DART™ I) systems had one-way communications from the BPR to the Tsunami Warning Centers (TWC) and NDBC via the western Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES West) (Milburn et al., 1996). DART™ I became operational in 2003. NDBC will replace all DART™ I systems with the second generation DART™ systems (DART™ II) by the end of 2008. DART™ I transmits standard mode data once an hour (four estimated sea-level height observations at 15-minute intervals).
DART™ II became operational in 2005 (Green, D., 2006). A significant capability of DART™ II is the two-way communications between the BPR and the TWCs/NDBC using the Iridium commercial satellite communications system (Meinig et al., 2005). The two-way communications allow the TWCs to set stations in event mode in anticipation of possible tsunamis or retrieve the high-resolution (15-s intervals) data in one-hour blocks for detailed analysis. DART™ II systems transmit standard mode data, containing twenty-four estimated sea-level height observations at 15-minute intervals, once very six hours. The two-way communications allow for real-time troubleshooting and diagnostics of the systems. NDBC receives the data from the DART™ II systems, formats the data into messages under the SXXX46 KWBC header, and then delivers them to the National Weather Service Telecommunications Gateway (NWSTG) that then distributes the data in real-time to the TWCs via NWS communications and nationally and internationally via the Global Telecommunications Systems.
Gonzalez, F.I., H.M. Milburn, E.N. Bernard and J.C. Newman (1998):
Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART): Brief Overview and Status Report. In Proceedings of the International Workshop on Tsunami Disaster Mitigation, 19-22 January 1998, Tokyo, Japan.
Green, D. (2006): Transitioning NOAA Moored Buoy Systems From Research to Operations. In Proceedings of OCEANS’06 MTS/IEEE Conference, 18-21 September 2006, Boston, MA, CD-ROM.
Meinig, C., S.E. Stalin, A.I. Nakamura, H.B. Milburn (2005), Real-Time Deep-Ocean Tsunami Measuring, Monitoring, and Reporting System: The NOAA DART™ II Description and Disclosure.
Milburn, H.B., A.I. Nakamura, and F.I. Gonzalez (1996): Real-time tsunami reporting from the deep ocean. Proceedings of the Oceans 96 MTS/IEEE Conference, 23-26 September 1996, Fort Lauderdale, FL, 390-394.
Mofjeld, H.O., Tsunami Detection Algorithm
NOAA requests that use of this data in published reports or presentations reference the source of the data as "NOAA’s National Data Buoy Center".
What is Dial-A-Buoy?
Dial-A-Buoy gives mariners an easy way to obtain weather reports when away from a computer/the Internet. Wind and wave measurements taken within the last hour at buoy and coastal weather stations operated by NDBC and a growing number of Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) partners can be heard using a cell phone. NDBC, a part of the National Weather Service (NWS), created Dial-A-Buoy in 1997. In 2007, NDBC and the National Ocean Service's Center for Operational Ocean Products and Services (NOS/CO-OPS) jointly implemented a replacement for the original system which had operated well beyond its expected life cycle. The new system is an extension of the Great Lakes Online service that NOS/CO-OPS is expanding to include its National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON) stations.
Large numbers of boaters use the observations, in combination with forecasts, to make decisions on whether it is safe to venture out. Some even claim that the reports have saved lives. Surfers use the reports to see if wave conditions are, or will soon be, promising. Many of these boaters and surfers live well inland, and knowing the conditions has saved them many wasted trips to the coast.
Buoy reports include wind direction, speed, gust, significant wave height, swell and wind-wave heights and periods, air temperature, water temperature, and sea level pressure. Some buoys report wave directions. Coastal weather stations report the winds, air temperature, and pressure; some also report wave information, water temperature, visibility, and dew point.
How do I use Dial-A-Buoy?
To access Dial-A-Buoy, dial 888-701-8992 using any touch tone or cell phone. Assuming you know the identifier of the station whose report you need, press "1". In response to the prompt, enter the five-digit (or character) station identifier. (For coastal stations whose identifiers contain both letter characters and numbers, use the number key containing the letter - for the letter "Q", press "7"; for "Z", press "9"; etc.) The system will ask you to confirm that your entry was correct by pressing "1". After a few seconds, you will hear the latest buoy or C-MAN observation read via computer-generated voice. At the end, the system will prompt you to press "1" to hear the report again, or "2" to continue with other options.
Dial-A-Buoy also can read the latest NWS marine forecast for most station locations. The system will prompt you to press "2" to continue after the observation is read, then "1" to hear the forecast. You can jump to the forecast before the end of the station report by pressing "21" during the reading of the station conditions.
When you are finished with Dial-A-Buoy, press 9 or simply hang-up!
There are several ways to find the station locations and identifiers. For Internet users, maps showing buoy locations are given at www.ndbc.noaa.gov/ . Telephone users can press "2" at the beginning of the call to be prompted for a latitude and longitude and receive the closest station locations and identifiers.
When you become familiar with the system, you do not have to wait for the prompts. For example, you can can press "1420071" as soon as you begin to hear the welcome message to hear the report from station 42007.
How Does Dial-A-Buoy Work?
The Dial-A-Buoy system does not actually dial into a buoy or C-MAN station. The phone calls are answered by a computer that controls the dialog and reads the observations and forecasts from NDBC's web site.
What are some problems with Dial-A-Buoy?
How do I enter characters for a Station Identifier? Characters are entered simply by pressing the key containing the character. For Q, press "7", and for Z, press "9". For example, to enter CHLV2, press the keys 24582.
How do I quit Dial-A-Buoy? Simply hang-up.
How do I hear the observations for another station? When you are finished hearing the observation or forecast, the system will prompt you to press "1" to hear it again or '2' to continue. The second option will be to press "2" to enter a new station identifier. You can jump to the new station prompt before the end of the station report by pressing "221" during the reading of the station conditions.
If you press 22 at most points in the call, Dial-A-Buoy will take you back to the beginning dialog.